Last revised: 8/12/2021
Latest additions marked


Scooter Litigation

Last revised: 6/16/2022
Latest additions marked 

Developments in the Industry and Equipment

The Players

A Highly Competitive (and Not Yet Profitable?) Business

Improvements in the E-Scooters Themselves (Including Durability and Recycling Measures)

Alternative Modes of Providing E-Scooters (Sales, Cash Rental, Long-Term Rental, Group Rental)

Structuring the Staff Needed for Charging, Repairing, and Redeployment (and Equipment Changes Designed to Make the Charging and Maintenance More Efficient)

Parking and Charging Stations Combined with User or Charger Incentives for Their Use

Developments that May Assist Enforcement of Local Rules or Rider Safety

Scooter Companies Lobbying against Tighter State Regulation


Vulnerability to Hacking

Effects of the Pandemic

Last revised: 4/11/2022

State Law on Electric Scooters

In General

States that Allow E-Scooters on Public Roads, Subject to Regulation

Alabama: Statutory Details

Arizona: Statutory Details

Arkansas: Statutory Details

California: Statutory Details

Colorado: Statutory Details

Connecticut: Statutory Details

Delaware Statutory Details

Florida: Statutory Details

Hawaii: Statutory Details

Indiana: Statutory Details

Kansas: Statutory Details

Kentucky: Statutory Details

Louisiana: Statutory Details

Maine: Statutory Details

Maryland: Statutory Details

Michigan: Statutory Details

Minnesota: Statutory Details

Mississippi: Statutory Details

Nevada: Statutory Details

New Jersey: Statutory Details

New York: Statutory Details

Ohio: Statutory Details

Oregon: Statutory Details

Pennsylvania: Statutory Details

South Dakota: Statutory Details

Tennessee: Statutory Details

Texas: Statutory Details

Utah: Statutory Details

Virginia: Statutory Details

Washington: Statutory Details

Wisconsin: Statutory Details

Examples of States in which Current Law Effectively Bars Modern E-Scooters from Public Roads and Streets

[See generally The Grounds and Consequences of Scooters not Being "Street Legal")


North Carolina:

  • N.C. Gen. Stat. § 20-4.01(27j) defines "moped" in terms that appear to include e-scooters. However, mopeds must be registered and be issued plates, and to be registered each must have vehicle identification number (VIN). Contemporary e-scooters lack VINs. 
  • They clearly fall within the definition of "motor vehicle" and cannot, therefore, be ridden without registration on public roads. Nor can they be ridden on sidewalks. N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 20-50(a), 20-160. However, if ridden on public roads they are subject to the state's DWI law. State v. Crow, 175 N.C. App. 119, 623 S.E.2d 68 (2005).
  • A bill that would authorize and regulate e-scooter use has been introduced in the North Carolina House

Last revised: 6/06/2022
Latest additions marked

Impact of Scooters on Urban Transportation, Safety, and the Environment