Arizona

Definition:

Prior to a 2019 amendment, motorized scooters fell under the definition of “motorized skateboard” in Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 28-101(41)(b)(1).

As amended by 2019 Ariz. Laws. 120, Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 28-101 defines two categories of motorized scooters.

25. "Electric miniature scooter" means a device that:
(a) weighs less than thirty pounds.
(b) has two or three wheels.
(c) has handlebars.
(d) has a floorboard on which a person may stand while riding.
(e) is powered by an electric motor or human power, or both.
(f) has a maximum speed that does not exceed ten miles per hour, with or without human propulsion, on a paved level surface. 

27. "Electric standup scooter":

(a) means a device that:
(i) weighs less than seventy-five pounds.
(ii) has two or three wheels.
(iii) has handlebars.
(iv) has a floorboard on which a person may stand while riding.
(v) is powered by an electric motor or human power, or both.
(vi) has a maximum speed that does not exceed twenty miles per hour, with or without human propulsion, on a paved level surface.
(b) does not include an electric miniature scooter.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

As amended by 2019 Ariz. Laws. 120, Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 28-627 authorizes local authorities to regulate “electric standup scooters” and Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 28-627 provides that operators of such scooters are “granted all the rights and privileges and … subject to all of the duties of a person riding a bicycle.”

Regulation by localities:

See above.

Arkansas

Definition:

Ark. Code § 27-51-1902 (as enacted by 2019 Ark. Act No. 1015)

As used in this subchapter:

(1)(A) "Electric motorized scooter" means a device that:
(i) Weighs less than one hundred pounds (100 lbs);
(ii) Has two (2) or three (3) wheels;
(iii) Has a handlebar;
(iv) Is equipped with a floorboard that can be used to stand on while riding the electric motorized scooter;
(v) Is powered by an electric motor; and
(vi) Has a maximum speed of twenty miles per hour (20 m.p.h.) with or without human propulsion on a paved level surface.
(B) "Electric motorized scooter" does not include:
(i) A motorcycle, an electric bicycle, an electric personal assisted mobility device, a motor-driven cycle, a motorized bicycle as defined in § 27-20-101, or a moped; or
(ii) An electric bicycle under § 27-51-1702;

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

Ark. Code § 27-51-1903 (as enacted by 2019 Ark. Act 1015) (age limit of 16, speed limit of 15 mph)

Regulation of motorized scooter rental:

Ark. Code § 27-51-1904 (as enacted by 2019 Ark. Act 1015) (requiring unique identification numbers and insurance)

Regulation by localities:

Ark. Code § 27-51-1905 (as enacted by 2019 Ark. Act 1015) (reasonable standards, rules, regulations for safe operation and requirement of data from scooter share operators)

California

Definition:

Cal. Veh. Code § 407.5
(a) A “motorized scooter” is any two-wheeled device that has handlebars, has a floorboard that is designed to be stood upon when riding, and is powered by an electric motor. This device may also have a driver seat that does not interfere with the ability of the rider to stand and ride and may also be designed to be powered by human propulsion. For purposes of this section, a motorcycle, as defined in Section 400, a motor-driven cycle, as defined in Section 405, or a motorized bicycle or moped, as defined in Section 406, is not a motorized scooter.
(b) A device meeting the definition in subdivision (a) that is powered by a source other than electrical power is also a motorized scooter.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

Cal. Veh. Code § 407.5 (b) & (c) require manufacturers of motorized scooters to provide notice about likely lack of insurance coverage and the prohibition on altering the exhaust system to buyers.

Cal. Veh. Code §§ 21220 – 21235 (“subject to all the provisions applicable to the driver of a vehicle” including DUI provisions but not those concerning “financial responsibility, registration, and license plate”; scooter must have lights if operated at night; specific directions on how to operate on a highway and make turns and the use of bicycle lanes and paths; operation on sidewalks and roads with speed limits in excess of 25 mph forbidden; obstructing sidewalks is as well, operators must hold a driver’s license or learner’s permit and, if under 18 wear a helmet)

Regulation by localities:

Cal. Veh. Code § 21225 (local authorities can regulate the registration, parking, and operation of motorized scooters)

Cal. Veh. Code § 21230 (local authorities can limit the operation of motorized scooters on their paths, trails, or bikeways)

Colorado

Definition:

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 42-1-102, as amended by 2019 Colo. House Bill 19-1221 (Session Laws, Chapt. 271) 
(28.8) (a) "Electric scooter" means a device::
(i) weighing less than one hundred pounds;
(ii) with handlebars and an electric motor;
(iii) that is powered by an electric motor; and
(iv) that has a maximum speed of twenty miles per hour on a paved level surface when powered solely by the electric motor.
(b) "Electric scooter" does not include an electrical assisted bicycle, EPAMD, motorcycle, or low-power scooter.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

2019 Colo. House Bill 19-1221 (Session Laws, Chapt. 271) amends Colo. Rev. Stat. § 42-4-1412, so as to subject electric scooters to the same traffic rules and regulations as bicycles (and electrical assisted bicycles); amends Colo. Rev. Stat. § 42-1-102, removing electric scooters from the definition of "motor vehicle" while specifically including them in the definition of "vehicle"; amends § 42-3-103 to exempt them from its registration requirement; and subjects them to the state's careless and reckless driving penalties.

Regulation by localities:

2019 Colo. House Bill 19-1221 (Session Laws, Chapt. 271) amends Colo. Rev. Stat. § 42-4-111, extending the authority of local authorities to regulate electric scooters.

Connecticut

Definition:

Conn. Gen. Stat. § 14-1, as amended by Conn. Pub. L. No. 19-162:
(32) "Electric foot scooter" means a device (A) that weighs not more than seventy-five pounds, (B) that has two or three wheels, handlebars and a floorboard that can be stood upon while riding, (C) that is powered by an electric motor and human power, and (D) whose maximum speed, with or without human propulsion on a paved level
surface, is not more than twenty miles per hour;

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

Conn. Pub. L. No. 19-162 removes electric foot scooters from Conn. Gen. Stat. § 14-1's definition of motor vehicles, allows them to be operated and parked on sidewalks (unless banned by local regulation, see below), amends Conn. Gen. Stat. § 14-286a to subject them to the same rules of the road as bicycles, 

Regulation by localities:

Conn. Pub. L. No. 19-162 amends Conn. Gen. Stat. § 14-286 to subject the operation and parking of electric foot scooters on sidewalks to regulation by "ordinance of any city, town or borough or by any regulation of the Office of the State Traffic Administration" and amends Conn. Gen. Stat. § 14-289 to confirm the more general authority of the state's towns, cities, and boroughs to regulate the operation of electric foot scooters or subject them to an annual licensing regime.

Florida

Definition:

Fla. Stat. § 316.003(44), as amended by 2019 Fla. H.B. 453:
(44) MOTORIZED SCOOTER.—Any vehicle or micromobility device that is powered by a motor with or without seat or saddle for the use of the rider, which is designed to travel on not more than three wheels, and which is not capable of propelling the vehicle at a speed greater than 20 miles per hour on level ground.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

Fla. Stat. § 316.2128, as amended by 2019 Fla. H.B. 453 exempts micromobility devices and motorized scooters from registration, licensing, insurance, and driver's license requirements (operators subject to the rights and duties applicable to bicycles, plus any local restrictions). 

Regulation by localities:

Fla. Stat. § 316.2128, as amended by 2019 Fla. H.B. 453 authorizes ordinances "governing the operation of micromobility devices and motorized scooters on streets, highways, sidewalks, and sidewalk areas under the local government's jurisdiction."

Indiana

Definition:

Ind. Code § 49.4 (added by Ind. Public Law No. 142-2019)
"Electric foot scooter" means a device:
(1) weighing not more than one hundred (100) pounds;
(2) designed to travel on not more than three (3) wheels in contact with the ground;
(3) with handlebars and a floorboard that the rider uses to stand on the device during operation; and
(4) powered by an electric motor that is capable of powering the device with or without human propulsion at a speed not more than twenty (20) miles per hour on a paved level surface.
The term does not include a motor driven cycle, motor vehicle, or motorcycle.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

Ind. Public Law No. 142-2019 removes "electric foot scooters" from the definitions of vehicle and motor vehicle and establishes a new Ind. Code § 13.6 (applying to scooter operators "all the rights and duties under this chapter
that are applicable to a person riding a bicycle;” requiring lights after dark and adequate brakes; allowing parking on sidewalks so long as "the reasonable and normal movement of pedestrians or vehicle traffic" is not impeded, unless local authorities provide otherwise may be ridden where bicycles may be ridden).

Regulation of motorized scooter operation and rental by localities

The new section Ind. Code § 13.6 added by Ind. Public Law No. 142-2019 authorizes local authorities to limit scooters on bicycle lanes and paths and permits them to "prohibit the parking of an electric foot scooter on a sidewalk" but only "if the local authority provides an adequate alternative parking location in a public right-of-way that is proximate to the prohibited area."

Kansas

Definition: Kan. Stat. § 8-126 (as amended by 2019 Kan. Sen. Bill 63)
(g) "Electric-assisted scooter" means every self-propelled vehicle that has at least two wheels in contact with the ground, an electric motor, handlebars, a brake and a deck that is designed to be stood upon when riding.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

2019 Kan. Sen. Bill 63 adds a new section governing the operation of "electric-assisted scooters" (need not be registered, traffic regulations applicable to bicycles apply, not permitted on interstate, federal, or state highways).

Regulation of motorized scooter operation and rental by localities:

2019 Kan. Sen. Bill 63 adds a new section authorizing cities and counties to further restrict or prohibit.

Kentucky

Definition:

Ken. Rev. Stat. § 189.010 (as amended by 2019 Ky. Act No. 22)
(26) "Electric low-speed scooter" means a device that:
(a) Weighs less than one hundred (100) pounds;
(b) Is equipped with wheels;
(c) Is equipped with handlebars;
(d) Is equipped with a brake adequate enough to stop and park the device;
(e) Is designed to be stood or sat upon;
(f) Is propelled by an electric motor, human power, or both; and
(g) Is designed to operate at a maximum speed of twenty (20) miles per hour, on a paved level surface, with or without human propulsion.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

2019 House Bill 258 adds a new section governing the operation and parking of “electric low-speed scooters” (operators must be 16; lights required after dark; must be parked so as “not to impede the reasonable movement of pedestrians”).

The same section directs a state agency to establish safe operating standards by regulation.

Regulation of motorized scooter operation and rental by localities:

The section added by 2019 House Bill 258

Louisiana

Definition: La. R.S. § 32:300.1.1 (enacted by 2019 La. Act. No. 258)
B. For purposes of this Section, the term "electric low-speed scooter" shall mean a rental or commercial scooter weighing less than one hundred pounds that has handlebars and an electric motor, is solely powered by an electric motor or human power, and has a maximum speed of not more than twenty miles per hour on a paved level surface when powered solely by an electric motor. An electric low-speed scooter shall not be considered a motor3 driven cycle, a vehicle, or a motor vehicle.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

La. R.S. § 32:300.1.1 (enacted by 2019 La. Act. No. 258) governs the operation of "electric low-speed scooters" (no more riders than designed for, lights required after dark, helmets required of those under 17, no attachment to other vehicles, no carrying of items that prevent one hand from remaining on handlebars, must ride by the right hand side of the road).

Regulation of motorized scooter operation and rental by localities:

La. R.S. § 32:300.1.1 (enacted by 2019 La. Act. No. 258) authorizes "the department or any parish or municipal governing authority, or both, [to] ... limit or prohibit the operation of ... scooters on any sidewalk, bicycle path, or highway under its jurisdiction if such prohibition or regulation is in the interest of safety" and "reasonably regulate and assess penalties for moving or parking violations applicable to the operator....."

Maryland

Definition:

Md. Code § 11-104 (as amended by 2019 Md. Laws Chapt. 227) defines bicycles as including electric low speed scooters:
(A) “Electric low speed scooter" means a vehicle that:
(1) is designed to transport only the operator;
(2) weighs less than 100 pounds;
(3) has single wheels in tandem or a combination of one or two wheels at the front and rear of the vehicle;
(4) is equipped with handlebars and a platform designed to be stood on while riding;
(5) is solely powered by an electric motor and human power; and
(6) is capable of operating at a speed of up to 20 miles per hour.
(B) “Electric low speed scooter" does not include:
(1) An electric personal assistive mobility device; or
(2) an electric wheelchair or other mobility aid used by a disabled individual.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

Subject to the same rules as bicycles. Those are set out in Md. Code §§ 21-1201 to 21-1213.

Regulation of motorized scooter operation and rental by localities:

No specialized provisions; left to the general powers of local authorities.

Minnesota

Definition:

Minn. Stat. § 169-011
"Motorized foot scooter" means a device with handlebars designed to be stood or sat upon by the operator, and powered by an internal combustion engine or electric motor that is capable of propelling the device with or without human propulsion, and that has no more than two 12-inch or smaller diameter wheels and has an engine or motor that is capable of a maximum speed of 15 miles per hour on a flat surface with not more than one percent grade in any direction when the motor is engaged. An electric personal assistive mobility device, a motorized bicycle, an electric-assisted bicycle, or a motorcycle is not a motorized foot scooter.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

Minn. Stat. § 169.225 (minimum age of 12; helmet required if under 18; operation with additional passenger and on sidewalks forbidden; lights required, directions on how to operate on highways; use on bicycle lanes and paths authorized unless forbidden by local authorities)

Regulation of motorized scooter operation and rental by localities:

No specialized provisions beyond that noted above; left to the general powers of local authorities.

Nevada

Definition:

2019 Nev. A.B. 485 adds a section to Nev. R.S., Chapt. 482 & Chapt. 484A
“Electric scooter” means a vehicle:
1.With  handlebars  and  an  electric  motor  that  is  designed  to be  ridden  on  in  an  upright or  seated position  and  is  propelled  by its electric motor or by propulsion provided by the rider;
2.That  does  not  weigh  more  than  100  pounds  without  a rider; and
3.That has a maximum speed of not more than 20 miles per hour when powered solely by its electric motor.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

2019 Nev. A.B. 485 adds a section to Nev. Chapt. 484A which authorizes local authorities to enact ordinances regulating "the time, place and manner of operation of electric scooters" within their jurisdictions "in a manner that is generally consistent with such regulation of bicycles and electric bicycles." 

Regulation of motorized scooter operation and rental by localities:

See above. 2019 Nev. A.B. 485 also authorizes local authorities to regulate scooter-share programs within their jurisdictions and provides, in some detail, what such regulation may consist of.

New Jersey

Definition:

N.J. Rev. Stat. § 39:1-1 (as amended by 2018 N.J. S.B. 731)
"Low-speed electric scooter” means a scooter with a floorboard that can be stood upon by the operator, with handlebars, and an electric motor that is capable of propelling the device with or without human propulsion at a maximum speed of less than 19 miles per hour.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

A new section added to N.J. Rev. Stat. by 2018 N.J. S.B. 731) (allowed on roads but not sidewalks, may be parked on sidewalks if doesn't "impede the normal movement of pedestrian or other traffic;" use on bicycle paths subject to regulation by local government; subject to rules applicable to bicycles "except those provisions which by their very nature may have no application to low-speed electric bicycles or low-speed electric scooters")

Regulation of motorized scooter operation and rental by localities:

See above.

Oregon

Definition:

Or. Rev. Stat. § 801.348 (as amended by 2018 Or. Laws Chap. 3)
“Motor assisted scooter” means a vehicle that:
(1) Is designed to be operated on the ground with not more than four wheels;
(2) Has a foot support or seat for the operator's use;
(3) Can be propelled by motor or human propulsion; and
(4) Is equipped with a power source that is incapable of propelling the vehicle at a speed of greater than 24 miles per hour on level ground and:
(a) If the power source is a combustion engine, has a piston or rotor displacement of 35 cubic centimeters or less regardless of the number of chambers in the power source; or
(b) If the power source is electric, has a power output of not more than 1,000 watts.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 814.510 – 814.536 (as amended by 2018 Or. Laws Chap. 3) (age limit of 16; speed limit of 15 mph; limiting use to highways with speed limit of 25 mph or less and bike lanes or paths; helmet required; operation with additional passenger and on sidewalks forbidden; must walk when using crosswalk; carrying anything that interferes with safe operation forbidden; hand signals for stops and turns required)

Regulation of motorized scooter operation and rental by localities:

No specialized provisions; left to the general powers of local authorities.

Tennessee

Definition:

Tenn. Code § 55-8-301 (as amended by 2019 Tenn. Senate Bill 1107)
"Electric foot scooter" means a device weighing less than one hundred (100) pounds, with two (2) or three (3) wheels, handlebars, and a floorboard that can be stood upon while riding, which is solely powered by an electric motor or human power, or both, and whose maximum speed, with or without human propulsion on a paved level surface, is no more than twenty miles per hour (20 mph);

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

The 2019 legislation (2019 Tenn. Senate Bill 1107) subjects scooters to the same rules as electric bicycles, including exempting them from titling and registration requires. However, they are specifically subjected to state DWI law.

Regulation of motorized scooter operation and rental by localities:

A county, municipality, or metropolitan form of government can regulate, control, or ban the use and operation of electric scooters within its geographic boundaries. The ordinances must, however, be reasonably related to promotion and protection of the health, safety, and welfare of riders, operators, pedestrians, and motorists. 2019 Tenn. Senate Bill 1107.

Texas

Definition:

Tex. Transp. Code § 551.351
In this subchapter:
(1) “Motor-assisted scooter”:
(A) means a self-propelled device with:
(i) at least two wheels in contact with the ground during operation;
(ii) a braking system capable of stopping the device under typical operating conditions;
(iii) a gas or electric motor not exceeding 40 cubic centimeters;
(iv) a deck designed to allow a person to stand or sit while operating the device; and
(v) the ability to be propelled by human power alone; and
(B) does not include a pocket bike or a minimotorbike.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

Tex. Transp. Code § 551.352 (may be operated on a highway with a speed limit of 35 mph or less or sidewalk or bicycle lane subject to the authority of a county or municipality to prohibit in the interest of safety)

Regulation of motorized scooter operation and rental by localities:

See above; otherwise left to the general powers of local authorities

Utah

Definition:

Utah Code § 41-1a-102 (as amended by 2019 Utah Laws Chapt. 428)
(37)(a) "Motor assisted scooter" means a self-propelled device with:
(i) at least two wheels in contact with the ground;
(ii) a braking system capable of stopping the unit under typical operating conditions;
(iii) an electric motor not exceeding 2,000 watts;
(iv) either:
(A) handlebars and a deck design for a person to stand while operating the device;
(B) handlebars and a seat designed for a person to sit, straddle, or stand while operating the device;
(v) a design for the ability to be propelled by human power alone; and
(vi) a maximum speed of 20 miles per hour on a paved level surface.
(b) "Motor assisted scooter" does not include:
(i) an electric assisted bicycle; or
(ii) a motor-driven cycle.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

Utah Code § 41-6a-1115 (as amended by 2019 Utah S.B. 139) (age limit of 8; speed limit of 15 mph; lights required; restrictions on where permitted; otherwise subject to rules governing bicycles)

Regulation of motorized scooter operation and rental by localities:

Utah Code § 41-6a-1115.1 (added by 2019 Utah S.B. 139) (grants local authorities explicit authority to regulate motor assisted scooters so long as consistent with its regulation of bicycles; also grants explicit authority to regulate scooter share operations, which must display unique identification numbers on scooters, carry insurance, and indemnify; addresses data sharing)

Virginia

Definition:

Va. Code § 46.2-100 (as amended by 2019 Va. Acts Chapt. 780)

"Motorized skateboard or scooter" means every vehicle, regardless of the number of its wheels in contact with the ground, that (i) is designed to allow an operator to sit or stand, (ii) has no manufacturer-issued vehicle identification number, (iii) is powered in whole or in part by an electric motor, (iv) weighs less than 100 pounds, and (iv) has a speed of no more than 20 miles per hour on a paved level surface when powered solely by the electric motor. "Motorized skateboard or scooter" includes vehicles with or without handlebars but does not include "electric personal assistive mobility devices."

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

Va. Code §§ 46.2-800, 46.2-903, 46.2-904, 46.2-905, 46.2-908.1, 46.2-1015 (as amended by 2019 Va. Acts Chapt. 780) (subject to same rules as bicycles; must use hand signals for stops and turns; can operate on sidewalk unless prohibited by local ordinance; speed limit of 20 mph; age limit of 14 unless under immediate adult supervision; lights required at night)

Regulation of motorized scooter operation and rental by localities:

Va. Code § 46.2-1315 (added by 2019 Va. Acts Chapt. 780) (grants local authorities explicit authority to regulate or license motorized skateboard or scooter rental operations)

Washington

Definition:

Rev. Code § 46.04.336
"Motorized foot scooter" means a device with no more than two ten-inch or smaller diameter wheels that has handlebars, is designed to be stood upon by the operator, and is powered by an internal combustion engine or electric motor that is capable of propelling the device with or without human propulsion at a speed no more than twenty miles per hour on level ground.
For purposes of this section, a motor-driven cycle, a moped, an electric-assisted bicycle, or a motorcycle is not a motorized foot scooter.

The section was amended by 2019 Wash. Laws Chapt. 170 to read:
"Motorized foot scooter" means a device with two or three wheels that has handlebars, a floorboard that can be stood upon while riding, and is powered by an internal combustion engine or electric motor that has a maximum speed of no greater than twenty miles per hour on level ground.
For purposes of this section, a motor-driven cycle, a moped, an electric-assisted bicycle, or a motorcycle is not a motorized foot scooter.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

Wash. Rev. Code § 46.61.710 (as amended by 2019 Wash. Laws Chapt. 170), RCW 46.20.500 (as amended by 2019 Wash. Laws Chapt. 170) (adds a age limit of 16 for operators, sets a 15 mph speed limit, and allows operation on sidewalks at the discretion of and subject to limitations set by localities).

Regulation of motorized scooter rental:

2019 Wash. Laws Chapt. 170 adds a new section to Wash. Rev. Code § 46.61 which sets insurance requirements for motorized scooter rental operations.

Regulation by localities:

2019 Wash. Chapt. 170 adds a new section to Wash. Rev. Code § 46.61 which authorizes local authorities to regulate motorized-scooter operation, including whether and, if so, where they can be operated with their boundaries, and sets limited standards for such regulation. It also authorizes localities to regulate scooter share operations.

Wisconsin

Definition:

Wis. Stat. § 340.01 (15ps) (as amended by 2019 Wis. Act 11
“Electric scooter” means a device weighing less than 100 pounds that has handlebars and an electric motor, is powered solely by the electric motor and human power, and has a maximum speed of not more than 20 miles per hour on a paved level surface when powered solely by the electric motor. “Electric scooter” does not include an electric personal assistive mobility device, motorcycle, motor bicycle, electric bicycle, or moped.

Regulation of motorized scooters and their operation:

2019 Wis. Act 11 subjects electric scooters in numerous specific details to the same regulations as bicycles and electric personal assistive mobility devices (subject to further municipal regulation). 

Regulation motorized scooter operation and rental by localities:

2019 Wis. Act 11 adds a new section 349.237 to Wis. Stat.:
The governing body of any municipality or county may, by ordinance, regulate the rental and operation of electric scooters in a manner consistent with the regulation of bicycles in the municipality or county, except that the governing body of any municipality or county may do any of following:
(1) Restrict or prohibit the operation of electric scooters on any roadway under its jurisdiction having a speed limit of more than 25 miles per hour.
(2) Restrict or prohibit the operation of electric scooters on any sidewalk or bicycle way under its jurisdiction.
(3) Establish requirements for and limitations on the parking of electric scooters on roadways, sidewalks, bicycle lanes, or bicycle ways under its jurisdiction.
(4) Restrict or prohibit the short-term commercial rental of electric scooters to the general public.